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Get A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including PDF

By Arthur Israel Vogel

ISBN-10: 0582442451

ISBN-13: 9780582442450

The most effective books there's instructing sensible natural chemistry. The 3rd version of this ebook (first released in 1956) is de facto of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously dear glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.

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Additional resources for A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition

Example text

1, 10, 1. Temperature (C) substance vrould completely solidify. To decide which process is likely to occur at a particular temperature, curve (a) must be superimposed upon curve (6) thus giving curve (c). The rate of rise of vapour pressure with temperature is greater for the solid than for the liquid, consequently the two curves will intersect. At the intersection (and only at this temperature), both solid and liquid can coexist; this is therefore the freezing point or melting point since these two constants are identical for a pure substance.

The reason for the constancy and sharpness of the melting point of a pure crystalline solid can be appreciated upon reference to Fig. /, 10, 1, in which (a) is the vapour pressure curve of the solid and (6) that of the liquid form of the substance. Let us imagine a vessel, maintained at constant temperature, completely filled with a mixture of the above liquid and solid. The molecules of the solid can only pass into the liquid and the molecules of the liquid only into the solid. We may visualise two competitive processes taking place : (i) the solid attempting to " evaporate " but it can only pass into the liquid, and (ii) the liquid attempting to " distil " but it can only pass into the solid.

It is, however, affected to a very marked extent by the addition of quite a small quantity of a foreign substance (impurity), which dissolves either in one or both of the partially miscible liquids. The determination of the consolute temperature may therefore be used for testing the purity of liquids. The upper consolute temperature is generally employed for this purpose. T. is generally raised. T. of the water - phenol system by about 12° ; a similar concentration of naphthalene in the phenol produces a rise of about 30°.

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A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition by Arthur Israel Vogel


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