By S.L. Schreiber
Quantity 1 offers a close survey of reactions that entail the 1,2-addition of nonstabilized carbanion equivalents of carbonyl, imino and thiocarbonyl performance. Emphasis has been put on these reagents that bring about hugely selective addition reactions. tools are mentioned to choose, for instance, one carbonyl team over one other within the comparable molecule, or so as to add preferentially a fraction to at least one (enantiotopic of diastereotopic) face of a carbonyl crew. tactics that end result from an preliminary addition to the C=X useful workforce, for instance alkenations and rearrangements, also are lined during this quantity.
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Extra resources for Additions to C-X &pgr;-Bonds, Part 1, Volume 1
Obviously, such differences have severe implications for fair competition. To tilt the playing FARMING_02 30/9/03 4:09 PM Page 45 ORGANIC FARMING IN EUROPE IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM . 15 Typical payment rates for certified organic cereal in 1997 (Lampkin et al. 1999a and b; Foster and Lampkin 1999) field even further in their favour, Austrian farmers could usually count on receiving an additional =C 50 of basic environmental support. 16). One interesting case is Sweden, where the policy-supported organic land is larger than the certified area, reflecting a specific strategy with respect to organic farming.
8 Criteria for the willingness to pay a price premium for food products (Müller and Hamm 2001) the quality of conventional products. This can be a very subjective concept: quality is what consumers think it is. Quality can relate to the product’s attributes, such as the perception that organic products are healthier, taste better, or are simply trendier or more fashionable. But quality can also relate to the consumer’s wish to support a good cause – a better environment, less pollution or more regional production – which does not necessarily benefit them directly.
In the medium term, further growth in retail sales is expected at a rate of 10–30 per cent per year. However, the largest markets in 2000 are not necessarily expected to grow at the fastest rate, whereas other minor markets are expected to expand rapidly. 5 15—20 Japan 2,500 — — 17,500 — — Total approx. 1 Estimates; official trade statistics are not available. The figures for Japan are particularly uncertain, as they also include non-certified products classed as ‘green’. 2 Belgium, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Norway Germany, for example, the largest market within Europe, is expected to continue to grow at 10–15 per cent, which would amount to a yearly increase in retail sales volume of approximately US$340 million.
Additions to C-X &pgr;-Bonds, Part 1, Volume 1 by S.L. Schreiber