By CarbÃ³ Santiago, Edward P.M. Gardener, Philip Molyneux
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Additional info for Financial Exclusion
29). Methods of service delivery can also be important (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1999). 9) suggests that telephone banking is obviously of little use to those without a telephone! The BBA (2003, p. 6) points out that of the 12,000 or so retail bank branches in the UK, over 1,000 provide customers with access to the Internet. Nevertheless, the rise of Internet banking will also discriminate against those households without a PC or access to one. Generation attitudes (the older generation prefer more overt means of banking) and technology-literacy may also be relevant barriers in this context.
Only a relatively small proportion (though apparently growing) is without access to any form of credit. Nevertheless, those excluded from mainstream ﬁnancial services are often forced to seek more expensive sources, (like money lenders, pawnbrokers, mail order catalogues and cheque cashers). There has been a marked growth in both the volume and different kinds of credit available in the UK market during recent years. High rates of ﬁnancial innovation, intense competition, aggressive marketing, greater sophistication in credit risk appraisal, the pursuit of cus- Financial Exclusion in the UK 35 tomer segmentation strategies, greater sophistication in risk-based pricing and more emphasis on shareholder value maximisation in FSF strategies are some of the key features of the UK mass market in credit.
Many physical disabilities comprise barriers to inclusion. These vary from mobility through to sight, hearing and other impediments. As a result, people with these kinds of disabilities may be unable to read ATM screens or use telephone-based services. Risk assessment, as we discussed earlier, is another area that can provide a barrier to ﬁnancial services. On the one hand, more accurate risk analysis and related pricing have increased inclusion; ﬁnancial products can be tailored and priced on a more accurate economic basis so as to make them available to a wider clientele.
Financial Exclusion by CarbÃ³ Santiago, Edward P.M. Gardener, Philip Molyneux