By Isaac Asimov
Introducing Carbon—and the basics of natural chemistry
Chemists divide all ingredients into sessions. in a single category are things like olive oil, sugar, starch, glue, gelatin, silk, rubber, paper, and penicillin. those are examples of natural elements. within the different category are things like air, water, sand, clay, salt, gold, silver, iron, brass, glass, and urban. those are examples of inorganic ingredients. the excellence among the 2 emerged while it turned obvious that natural ingredients are made of molecules that just about consistently contained not less than one carbon atom; it then grew to become handy to name any substance with carbon atoms in its molecule natural and any substance with out carbon atoms inorganic. during this approach the realm of natural chemistry got here to be pointed out with the realm of carbon.
In the area of Carbon, Isaac Asimov, introducing the learn of natural chemistry, deals a transparent, bright, and understandable research of the various commonest natural compounds in our international. And he demonstrates how elevated wisdom of the constitution of those carbon compounds—from anaesthetics and antifreeze to color and perfume—has ended in a greater existence for all of us.
Those universal natural compounds no longer mentioned during this quantity are lined via Dr. Asimov in a spouse quantity that concentrates on carbon compounds containing at the very least one atom of nitrogen. correctly entitled the realm of Nitrogen, it's also on hand in Collier Books.
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In both species − -kopsinine is the principal alkaloids69 . Moreover, in the Dogbane plant family are also phenylalanine-derived alkaloids, such as -skytanthine in the Skythantus species (Figure 10, Table 2 and 10). All alkaloids from the Dogbane family have a strong biological and medicinal effect. Many of them are used in cancer chemotherapy. 2. The Aster botanical family (Asteraceae) The Aster (syn. ) is very large, containing over 900 genera and more than 20 000 species (Table 3). Their distribution is worldwide, and species belonging to this family are found everywhere.
33 have found new alkaloids, stachydrine and 4-hydroxystachydrine, derived from Boscia angustifolia, a plant belonging to the Capparidacea family. These alkaloids have a pyrroline nucleus and are basic alkaloids in the genus Boscia. The species from this genus have been used in folk medicine in East and South Africa. Boscia angustifolia is used for the treatment of mental illness, and occasionally to combat pain and neuralgia. 3. Pseudoalkaloids Pseudoalkaloids are compounds, the basic carbon skeletons of which are not derived from amino acids31 .
Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill is an invasive and native shrub in Brazilian savanna. It is well known that this plant contains solamargine and solasodine, present in the unripe fruits108 . Especially, steroid alkaloid solasodine may penetrate in animal body (experiments with rats), the placental and hematoencephalical barriers and impact the foetuses. 108 S. lycocarpum fruit may act as phytohormones, promoting perhaps some neural alterations that at adult age may impair the sexual behaviour of the experimental female without impairing the fertility and sexual hormone synthesis.
World of Carbon by Isaac Asimov